On November 21, 1962, after a month of fighting along its border with India, China declared a unilateral ceasefire, bringing to an end the Sino-Indian War.
The tension was building on the border areas through 1962, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on October 12 said that he had instructed the Indian army to drive out “Chinese invaders” from Arunachal Pradesh (earlier known as the North-East Frontier Agency or NEFA), which was claimed by both nations.
In response, the People’s Daily, the spokesman of China’s Communist Party, wrote on October 14 that it seemed Nehru had “made up his mind” to attack the Chinese boundary guards. “It is high time to shout to Mr. Nehru that the heroic Chinese troop can never be cleared by anyone from their territory,” the editorial said. “We still want to appeal once more to Mr. Nehru: better rein in at the edge of the precipice and do not use the lives of Indian troops as stakes in your gamble.”
In the Sino-Indian war, which broke out on October 20, 1962, and ended on November 21, 1962, the Chinese had taken the Chip Chap River Valley, Galwan Valley, and Pangong Lake in Ladakh in the Western Sector bordering Sinkiang and Tibet. Tawang, Thagla Ridge, Dhola Pass (Che Dong for the Chinese), and Walong in India’s North-East Frontier Agency (now called Arunachal Pradesh) had also been over-run. On their maps, the Chinese were showing 57,936 sq km of the North Eastern Frontier Agency and 19,312 sq km of Ladakh as being part of China.